5 Reasons Why Piglets Are Allergic to Iron Supplementation

March 09,2022

Iron dextran is a dark brown colloidal solution. It is commonly used for symptoms such as iron deficiency anemia in piglets.


What does iron dextran do?


Iron is an important component of hemoglobin, myoglobin and various enzymes (cytochrome oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, xanthine oxidase, etc.). Iron deficiency can not only cause anemia, but may also affect other physiological functions. Usually normal dietary intake is sufficient to maintain the balance of iron in the body, but in lactation, pregnancy and some cases of iron deficiency anemia, iron supplements can correct abnormal physical symptoms and decreased hemoglobin levels caused by iron deficiency.


Iron dextran is slowly absorbed mainly through the lymphatic system after intramuscular injection. About 60% of the iron is absorbed within 3 days after injection, reaching 90% after 1 to 3 weeks, and the rest of the drug may be slowly absorbed over several months. Liver, spleen, and bone marrow reticuloendothelial cells gradually clear absorbed drugs from plasma. Iron dissociated from dextran is immediately combined with protein molecules to form hemosiderin, ferritin or transferrin. Dextran, on the other hand, is metabolized or excreted.


But sometimes piglets will have allergies after iron supplementation. Why? As an injection iron dextran supplier, we summarize the reasons:


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Why are piglets allergic to iron supplementation?


After being absorbed by pigs, iron is distributed throughout the body, mainly in the blood, liver and spleen, followed by kidney, heart, skeletal muscle and brain. The highest iron content is found in pig liver. However, the ability of pigs to excrete iron is very limited, and shedding with bile and mucosal epithelial cells is the main route of endogenous iron loss, and very little iron is excreted in feces and urine. Therefore, excessive iron supplementation can easily lead to iron allergy in piglets.


✔️The molecular weight of iron dextran is too large


At present, the main component of most intramuscular iron supplements on the market is iron dextran, and its molecular weight is 10000u-12000u, and excellent iron supplements can reach 5000u-7500u. The smaller the molecular weight, the better the muscle absorption of piglets, and the less prone to allergic reactions. If the piglet has a bruised mass at the injection site, this is a typical symptom of the piglet's poor absorption of iron supplements.


✔️Too much impurities in iron dextran


Ferric dextran is a complex formed by the complexation of ferric hydroxide and dextran. At present, there are substances such as ferric chloride, sodium hydroxide and ethanol involved in the chemical synthesis process of producing iron dextran. These substances have strong stimulation to piglets.


Ferric chloride has a strong irritating and corrosive effect on the entire respiratory tract, damages the mucosal tissue, and is highly corrosive to the eyes. In severe cases, it can lead to blindness. Skin contact can cause chemical burns. Oral burns to the oral cavity and digestive tract, severe abdominal pain, vomiting and collapse. Ferric chloride can also cause liver and kidney damage. On the other hand, the hydrolysis of ferric chloride produces free chlorine, which is highly irritating and can cause chlorine poisoning in piglets.


✔️Excessive iron supplementation


Pigs have a limited excretion of iron. When the body continues to take in too much iron and exceeds the storage capacity of ferritin, the combination of β1-globulin and iron in the blood is rapidly saturated, and it accumulates in the liver cells in the form of hemosiderin, causing liver cell damage. Excess iron can also cause serious damage to the piglet's immune system, lungs, kidneys and other organs, resulting in a decline in the body's immune function.


✔️Piglets are deficient in vitamin E


Piglets lacking vitamin E are extremely sensitive to iron-containing drugs, and vitamin E can alleviate oxidative stress and lipid metabolism disorders induced by iron supplementation in piglets.


✔️Genetic factors


Congenital genetic factors in sows can cause piglets to allergic to iron. With the improvement of pig breeds, the incidence rate is on the rise, accounting for 80% of the diseased pigs. Allergies are more common in two-three-way hybrid pigs and matching lean pigs, and the incidence of local breeds is low.


To sum up


We are a manufacturer specializing in veterinary drugs, more about the dextran side effects, or wholesale Injection Iron Dextran, please feel free to contact us, we will be happy to serve you.